Diabetology is the study of diabetes and often referred as Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Diabetes is a metabolic disorder or disease and it occurs when the person has high blood glucose. It is because of inadequate production of insulin or irresponsive body cells to insulin. In some cases, both the reasons can cause diabetes and the patient with diabetes mellitus will experience frequent urination (Polyuria), increasingly thirsty (Polydipsia) and feels hungry always (Polyphagia). There are two major type of diabetes. Type-1 diabetes is Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) where the body does not produce insulin and type-2 diabetes is Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) where the body does not produce enough insulin for proper functioning of body. Moreover, 90% of the cases reported on diabetes worldwide are type-2 diabetes. During pregnancy period, females may get gestational diabetes due to excessive glucose in blood which is a temporary disorder and it is controllable with exercise and diet.
The major complications associated with diabetes mellitus are cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, etc. Such complications increase the death rate of diabetes patient to 75%. The primary micro vascular disease damage the blood vessels in the retina known as diabetic retinopathy and diabetes also damage kidney (diabetic nephropathy) and nerves (diabetic neuropathy).
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