Cardiology

Cardiology

Subject matter experts

Cardiology is the study of the cardiovascular system, and it is otherwise called a circulatory system or blood vascular system. Knowing the basic function of the circulatory system and the parts of the human body, the heart is one of the major organs and critical to understanding it’s physiology. Thoracic cavity contains the heart protected by the rib cage, and the location of the heart is media sternum. The heart is made of 4 chambers with complex pathways of arteries, veins and capillaries, and exchanges nutrients and gasses to the body. The arteries or arterioles carries oxygenated blood through the body, and it looks darker than veins because of excessive oxygen present in arteries. The veins carry de-oxygenated blood and pass it for purification.

The pathway of oxygenated blood starts from lungs to aorta through the pulmonary vein, left atrium, and left ventricle, and the pathway of de-oxygenated blood travels through the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery to lungs for purification. The heart has four major valves namely Interatrial septum (divides atrial into left and right), Interventricular septum (divides ventricles), tricuspid valve (divides right atrium and right ventricle), and bicuspid valve (divides left atrium and left ventricle). The capillaries are the smallest blood vessels which help to exchange gases all through the body. The pumping of the heart takes place as diastole and systole movement, and it starts from SA node up to Purkinje fibres. With the help of this pressure, the heart pumps blood through blood vessels and helps transport vital nutrients and gases throughout the body and removes metabolic waste through lymph vessels.

The basic functions of the circulatory system are transporting nutrients, oxygen and hormones to cells all over the body, removes metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes, etc. and regulates body temperature. Through the circulation process, the blood carries white blood cells to protect the system, carries antibodies and complements proteins and defend the system against the foreign particles. The human body will have an average blood volume between 4.5 to 5.5 litres, out of which 70% will be present in veins, 10% will be in arteries.

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