The cardiovascular system is one of the major parts of the human body as it transports materials throughout the human body, and it is otherwise known as the circulatory system. The materials it carries include endocrine hormones to regulate the process in distant tissue, immune cells to carry out immune reactions at the inflammatory site and other gases. Physical damage to any blood vessels activates the coagulation cascade to induce blood clot formation and minimize blood loss as it is the primary function of platelets. Metastasis of tumors relies on the circulatory system for the transportation of tumor cells from one site to the secondary site of malignant cancer. Besides, there are multiple cardiovascular health concerns includes stroke, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, cardiomyopathy, hypertension and arrythmias. Cardiovascular biology research involves the development of normal heart function, pathological conditions, and problems related to blood and lymphatic vessels. As the circulatory system plays a key role in the transportation of required nutrients, hormones and immune cells, and the process of coagulation and angiogenesis are critical for the growth of the system.
The basic function of the cardiovascular system is to pump blood, and it happens due to the synchronized contraction of cardio muscles and provides required force to pump blood through arteries, veins and capillaries. In contrast, the lymphatic system returns interstitial fluids to the system. The heart and blood vessels are lined with endothelial cells and work as a barrier between the blood vessels and tissues. Vascular smooth muscle cells lie in the medial layer of blood and lymphatic vessels, and especially in muscular arteries, it provides physical strength and blood pressure regulation. During inflammation, endothelial cells upregulate sticky proteins that intervene in immune cells to reach the inflammation sites of tissue damage or infection. Further, hypertension can result from endocrine and dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system, kidney damage, vascular stiffness, etc.
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