Peptides are amino acid polymers which are naturally occurring large molecules with different functions and actions to make sure proper functioning of the human body. Peptides, as well as proteins, have significantly grown and expanded in the medicinal and pharmaceutical research through developing multiple experimental designs for biomedical applications. This is because peptides and proteins have high affinity, specificity, less toxic, and can modify protein to protein interaction with the help of molecular engineering and protein engineering. Though peptides are much smaller in size than protein molecules and they do not have specific activities to work on their own because they generally embody a sizeable portion of a large protein molecule. Peptides signal other molecules when there happens any interaction between molecules with specific receptors such as hormones and cytokines. The recent development in the therapeutic research has gained much attention on peptides and protein-based drug delivery systems. Although both peptides and protein molecules possess increased impact in the health care industry and pharmaceutical manufacturing and delivery of these molecules has limitation due to the size of molecule, hydrophilic nature and enzymatic cleavage. Through oral administration of protein molecules and peptides, the molecules tend to metabolize or react, at three sites before entering into the circulatory system or blood. Firstly, it is lumen, then on the surface of the membrane and finally within the cell context. There are various enzymes present in the intestinal lumen, secreted by the pancreas that includes chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase and elastase, which metabolize peptides and protein molecules.
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