Neurology

Neurology

Subject matter experts

Neurology is the study of the nervous system, and it deals with the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord as its major organs, and it is called the 6th sense. The other five sense organs are visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile. These organs send a signal through afferent nerve or sensory nerve which carries information from the sensory organ to the central nervous system. Such sensory inputs are processed, integrated, and the motor outputs are sent back to the efferent organs through sensory nerve as a motor response. The efferent organs are muscles and glands, and the chemicals that the neurotransmitter uses for transmitting signals are acetylcholine and dopamine. The peripheral nervous system is of two types; one is somatic, which is a voluntary system synchronizes the skeletal body movement. The other one is autonomic, which is an involuntary system synchronizes the sympathetic (act on the emergency situation) and parasympathetic (act on resting phase).

The brain has 4 types which include cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brain stem. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, and it is located superior to the brain. The basic function of the cerebrum is decision making, sensation, vision and auditory. The cerebellum is the 2nd largest and located posterior/inferior to the brain, and it helps in balancing and coordination of muscles. The central part of the brain is diencephalon which consists of epithalamus, thalamus and hypothalamus, which regulates vital signs such as heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure and body temperature and activity of daily living.

Brain stem locates inferior to the brain, which helps to transmit sensory information and motor information. The part separates the spinal cord, and the brain is the medulla oblongata, where the nerve fibre crossing takes place. Meninges are the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord, and it helps to protect the organ. The Cerebro Spinal Fluid produced by choroid plexus is a protein-rich fluid, and it gives lubrication to the central nervous system and protects it from external damage. Meninges are of three layers, namely dura mater (tough layer), arachnoid mater (blood vessels layer) and pia mater (thin layer connected to the brain).

The foramen magnum is the largest opening of the skull, and it is the continuation of the medulla oblongata. The spinal cord is covered by meninges, Cerebro Spinal Fluid and spinal nerves. There are three types of nerves called cranial nerve (12), spinal nerves (31) and peripheral nerves (numerous).

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