Gynecology

Gynecology

Subject matter experts

Gynecology is the study of the female reproductive system. In the earlier days, obstetrics deals with pregnancy and childbirth and gynecologist deal with the disease in the female reproductive system. But now, OB-GYN (Obstetrics – Gynecologist) deals with both the cases. The basic function of the female reproductive system includes the production of egg or OVA and production of secondary sexual characteristics (i.e. wide pelvis, breast growth, pubic hair). The female reproductive system is of three types, such as external genitalia, internal genitalia, and mammary gland.

External genitalia: External genitalia is medically called as VULVA, and it is otherwise called as PUDENDUM. It consists of the urethral orifice (to pass urine), anal orifice (to pass fecal matter) and introitus (to pass menstrual discharge, fetal birth and sexual intercourse). Bartholin gland is a mucus-producing gland which lubricates introitus during sexual intercourse, and it locates adjacent to the introitus.

Internal genitalia: The fallopian tube, ovary, the uterus is the major parts of internal genitalia. In which fallopian tube connects ovary and uterus and fimbriae is a finger-like structure; connects ovary and fallopian tube. The uterus has three layers, namely perimetrium (Outer layer), myometrium (muscular layer), and endometrium (inner lining).

Menstruation: The fallopian tube, ovary, the uterus is the major parts of internal genitalia. In which fallopian tube connects ovary and uterus and fimbriae is a finger-like structure; connects ovary and fallopian tube. The uterus has three layers, namely perimetrium (Outer layer), myometrium (muscular layer), and endometrium (inner lining).

Phases of menstruation:
Follicular phase – Production of egg in the ovary
Ovulatory phase – Egg transfers from the ovary to the fallopian tube
Luteal phase – Egg transfers to the body of the uterus

Pregnancy: Pregnancy is medically called as gestation and commonly known as conception. The overall period of pregnancy is between 38-40 weeks. There are 2 stages in pregnancy, such as embryonic stage (0-9 weeks) and fetal stages (10-38 weeks).

Mammary gland: The mammary gland is medically called as MAST, and it is made of adipose tissues or connective tissues, lactiferous gland (produces milk) with 15 to 20 lobes, lactiferous duct and lactiferous sinus. Lactiferous glands produce milk and pass it to the tip through the lactiferous duct. Lactiferous sinus is an empty space or cavity to store milk. Prolactin and oxytocin are the 2 hormones help with the production and ejection of milk. The first stage of MAST formation is called thelarche.

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