Glycobiology deals with the study of the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of saccharides or carbohydrates. It is also called glycans. It is a fast-growing field of research in biology and allied areas of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, molecular engineering, biotechnology and life sciences. Glycans present in every living organism, likewise, in eukaryotic cells, the proteins are translationally modified, and one such modification for cell viability is the attachment of glycosylation or glycoconjugates. The process of glycosylation link themselves to other molecules through glycosidic bone and produce glycans. In mammalian cells, glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycolipids are the amplest glycoconjugates. Besides, genomics and proteomics together systematically study the structure of a cell or organism and Glycomics is a division of glycobiology. Glycobiology deals with diverse, complex molecules and their functions are ascertained by their unique structures. So, for constructive study on glycobiology requires practical enzymatic tools and analytical systems are necessary to properly illuminate the structure, which can then be further modified for a specific function. Such analytical instruments and software’s that can be utilized to study the mysterious glycan structure includes liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, etc. The modulation of glycan molecules takes place through protein activity, transport, cell and tissue differentiation, protein clearance, metabolic and gene regulation, etc. Though there are many drugs available in the market such as heparin, erythropoietin and few in clinical trials for anti-cancer, glycans play a significant role in immune interaction and glycoproteins that are becoming the targets of future therapeutics, vaccines and diagnostics.
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