Genomics is the study of the structural, functional and inheritance of the genome of an organism. A significant part of genomics is determining the sequence of molecules. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the chemical compound which contains all the data and instruction of almost all living organisms. It is made up of double helix strand and looks like a twisted and paired strand. Genome is referred to a complete set of DNA, and approximately 3 billion DNA base pair copy will be available in every single cell of the body – thus makes the human genome. A gene is stated to the unit of Deoxyribonucleic acid that carries the instructions for making a specific protein or set of proteins and each gene in the human genome codes for only three proteins on average. With its four-letter sequence, DNA contains all the required information required to build the entire human body. Thus proteins makeup body organs/tissues and accessory structures, and controls chemical reactions through carrying signal between cells. If a cell's DNA is mutated, it causes abnormal growth of protein production, which leads to disrupt the body’s usual process and can cause disease such as cancer. Although gene directs the creation of a protein with the assistance of messenger molecule and enzymes, the enzyme copies the information into a molecule called messenger ribonucleic acid. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) travels out of the nucleus, into the cytoplasm, where the ribosome reads the mRNA, and the information is further used to link amino acids to form a specific protein.
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