Cancer research involves studying the different type of cancer and to identify the cause, prevention methods, diagnosis, and treatment. It ranges from the understanding of molecular science through clinical trials to evaluate several possible treatments that cure cancer. The treatment available to treat cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone and immune therapy, etc. In the last two decades, the development of clinical research in cancer shifted towards therapies developed from biotechnology research involves immunotherapy and gene therapy. The research was done everywhere, and it has been carried out in academic and research institutions, corporate pharmaceutical companies through grant funding from government and foreign funding agencies. Cancer research consists of several types of interdisciplinary area of research, and it involves specialist from chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, medicinal physics, epidemiology, biomedical engineering, etc. There are several stages in research that are intended to find solutions on a fundamental level to clarify the scientific mechanism of cells until translational research.
Translational research uses the fundamental findings of molecular mechanism and transforms that knowledge into a concept of different treatment procedures to treat and prevent cancer. Further, clinical research is for the development of pharmaceuticals, surgical, and medicinal technologies for the eventual treatment of patients. In cancer research, there are two types of studies, namely Experimental research and observational study. The experimental research helps the research professionals learn more about the molecular structure and functions of tumor cells and such studies will be tested using advanced imaging techniques. Whereas in observational studies, epidemiology involves understanding the cause of cancer and how it spreads in a community. Types of observational studies include case study, cohort study, case reports and cross-sectional study.
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