Surgery is a branch of medicine that is concerned in operative instrumental technique to investigate and treat a pathological disease to help repair the damaged or unwanted area in the human and animal body. Surgery involves treating acute illnesses or injuries that are different from chronic and slowly progressing diseases. There are four major types of surgery used for treatment, and they are; wound treatment, extirpative surgery, reconstructive and transplantation surgery. Wound treatment techniques include primary intention (after treatment the wound will be closed with suture, secondary intention (wound will be left open, and it closes naturally) and third intention (wound will be left open for days to clean the contaminations). The third intention mainly used by military surgeons and the wound will be kept open for days to clean the contaminations like shell fragment, dirt, etc. Extirpative surgery technique is used for the removal of infected tissues and organs. This technique is widely used for the removal of the breast (mastectomy), removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy), removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), etc. In recent times, minimally invasive surgery has been used most frequently to evaluate injuries as well to obtain tissue samples, as these techniques do not need a large incision. Minimally invasive surgery technique includes laparoscopy, endoscopy, arthroscopy, bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy (invasion of the chest cavity), cystoscopy (invasion of the urinary bladder), and gastroscopy (evaluation or viewing of the stomach).
Laparoscopy – It is a technique used to examine the organs of the human body and its abnormalities. Laparoscopy uses a light and a camera lens at the end of the tube, and it is often used during surgery for viewing inside the body instead of a large incision. Endoscopy – It is the study or viewing inside the organs of the digestive tract (pathway from mouth to anus). This technique is mainly used to remove tissue samples from the digestive tract for testing. Arthroscopy – Surgeons use this technique to view and repair the knee, shoulder, hip joint, etc.
Bronchoscopy – This technique is used to examine the airway of the lungs. Bronchoscopy helps in evaluating and diagnosing lung problems and also helps in removing a foreign body from the airway.
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